ZIP Code KML Map for NYC Census Data

With the release of both the 2010 Census profiles for ZCTAs (ZIP Code Tabulation Areas) and the TIGER line files for 2010 Census geographies, I created another Google Map finding aid for NYC neighborhood data by ZIP code (I previously created one for PUMAs with American Community Survey data). Once again I used the Export to KML plugin that was created for ArcGIS. This allowed me to use the TIGER shapefile in ArcGIS to create the map I wanted and then export it as a KML, while using fields in the attribute table of each feature to insert the ZCTA number into stable links for the census profiles, automatically generating unique urls for each feature. Click on the ZCTA in the map, and then click on a link to open a profile directly from the new American Factfinder.

There were two new obstacles I had to contend with this time. The first was that my department has finally migrated to Windows 7 from Windows XP, and I upgraded from ArcGIS 9.3 to 10. I had to reinstall the Export to KML plugin (version 2.5.5) and ran into trouble; fortunately all the work-arounds were included in the plugin’s documentation. I don’t have administrator rights on my machine, so I had to have someone install the plugin as an administrator; this included running the initial setup file AND running Arc as an administrator as you add and turn the plugin on. That was straightforward, but when I ran it the first time I got an error message – there’s a particular Windows dll or ocx file that the plugin needs and it was missing (presumably something that was included in XP but not in 7). I downloaded the necessary file, and with administrator rights moved it into the system32 folder and registered the file via the command line. After that I was good to go.

The second issue was with the Census Bureau’s new American Factfinder. With the old Factfinder the urls that were generated as you built and accessed tables were static and you could simply save and bookmark them. Not the case in the new Factfinder; you can bookmark some basic tables but most of them are “too complex to bookmark”; you can save and download queries from the online ap but that’s it. After some digging I found a CB document that tells you how you can create deep links to any query you run and table you create. The url consists of a fixed series of codes that identify the dataset, year, table, and geography. So this link:

http://factfinder2.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_DP/DPDP1/8600000US10010

Tells us that were getting a table from version 1.0 of the American Factfinder in English. It’s from the Decennial Census, 2010 Demographic Profiles, Demographic Profile Table 1, for ZCTA 10010 (860 is the summary level code that indicates we’re looking at ZCTAs). So for the plugin to create the links, I just included this URL but for the last five digits I specified the attribute from the ZCTA shapefile that held the ZCTA code. So when the plugin creates the KML, each KML feature has a link generated that is specific to it:

http://factfinder2.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_DP/DPDP1/8600000US[ZCTA5CE10]

You can see this previous post for details on how the Export to KML plugin works.

For now, the 2010 and 2000 Census are in the new American Factfinder. The American Community Survey, the Economic Census, population estimates, and a few other datasets are still in the older, legacy Factfinder. According to the CB all of this data will be migrated to the new Factfinder by the end of 2011 and the legacy version will disappear. At that point I’ll have to update my PUMA map so that it points to the profiles in the new Factfinder.

You can take a look at the ZCTA map and profiles below (I’m hosting it on the NYC data resource guide I’ve created for my college). As I’ve written before, ZCTAs are odd Census geographies since they are approximations of residential USPS ZIP Codes created by aggregating census blocks based on addresses; you can see in many instances where boundaries have a blocky teeth-like appearance instead of straight lines. Since they’re created directly by aggregating blocks, ZCTAs don’t correspond or mesh with other census boundaries like tracts or PUMAs, or even legal boundaries like counties. In some cases my assignment of county-based colors doesn’t ring true. For example, ZCTA 11370 includes part of the East Elmhurst neighborhood in Queens and Rikers Island, which is in the Bronx. ZCTA 10463 includes the Bronx neighborhoods of Kingsbridge and Spuyten Duyvil and the Manhattan neighborhood of Marble Hill (a geographic anomaly; it’s not on the Island of Manhattan but it’s part of Manhattan borough).

The most salient issue with ZCTAs is that they are only tabulated for the decennial census and not the American Community Survey; the currency of data and spectrum of census variables will be limited compared to other types of geography. ***NOTE*** This is no longer the case – ZCTA-level data is now available as part of the 5-year ACS, beginning with the 2007-2011 series.


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